Business Flashcards

Business Ethics Chapter 1 Quiz

The paradox of hedonism (or the paradox of selfishness) is that people who are exclusively concerned with their own interests tend to have happier and more satisfying lives than those who are concerned about other people. True
Which of the following characteristics distinguishes moral standards from other sorts of standards? moral standards take priority over other standards
Choose the statement that is a true reflection of moral beliefs Bystander apathy appears to result in part from diffusion of responsibility.
The benefits within moral standards are best seen in which statement? Professional codes are the rules that are supposed to govern the conduct of members of a given profession.
According to divine command theory, if stealing is wrong then it is wrong because:a. God forbids stealing because stealing is wrong.b. God leaves right and wrong up to humanity.c. Stealing is wrong only because God commands us not to steal.d. Our reason determines stealing to be wrong. C
The example of Huckleberry Finn shows:a. unlike most people, Huckleberry Finn lacked a conscience. b. we shouldn’t rely uncritically on what our conscience says.c. when in doubt, one should ignore one’s conscience.d. one should always obey one’s conscience. B
Our conscience evolved as we internalized the moral instructions of the parents or other authority figures who raised us as children. True
According to Tom Regan, our considered moral beliefs are those we hold only after we have made a conscientious effort (a) to attain maximum conceptual clarity, (b) to acquire all relevant information, (c) to think about the belief and its implications rationally, (d) impartially, and with the benefit of reflection, (e) coolly. True
Our relationship with the law is best described by which of the following?a. Violating the law is always immoral.b. The law is a completely adequate guide to the moral standards that we should follow.c. The law makes all immoral conduct illegal. d. To a significant extent, law codifies a society’s customs, norms, and moral values. D
A tangible truth about having moral principles is:a. business is fundamentally an amoral activity.b. if you do the right thing only because you think it will pay off, you’re not really motivated by moral concerns.c. morally responsible companies are rarely among the most profitable.d. moral behavior always pays off in strictly selfish terms. B
The famous experiments by social psychologist Solomon Asch showAnswers: a. the power of peer pressure has been greatly exaggerated. b. even temporary groups can pressure people to conform.c. the truth of utilitarianism.d. business organizations put more pressure on individual integrity than do other kinds of organization. B
Moral attitudes are best depicted by which of the following?a. As long as your conduct is legal, then it will be moral. b. Moral standards typically concern behavior that can be of serious consequence to human welfare.c. There is no distinction between morality in a broad sense and morality in a narrow sense.d. If you follow the rules of etiquette, your conduct will be moral. B
When ethical relativism is put into practice, it implies that:a. as societies evolve, their morality improves.b. in ethics, sometimes the minority is right.c. societies never share any moral values in common.d. we cannot say that slavery is wrong if the society in question believes it is right. D
Good moral judgments should be logical and:a. based on facts and acceptable moral principles.b. based on religion.c. beyond rational doubt.d. coincide with what most scientifically trained people think. A
When religion and morality are considered:a. the moral instructions of the world’s great religions are often general and imprecise.b. atheists are likely to be less moral than religious people.c. most people act rightly only because their religion tells them to.d. in practice, people who share a religion will agree on all moral questions. A
Ethical relativism supports the theory that:a. there are no moral values whatsoever.b. different societies have similar ideas about right and wrong. c. what is right is determined by what a culture or society says is right.d. morality is relative to the goal of promoting human well-being. C
Philosophical discussion of moral issues typically involves:a. the revision and modification of arguments.b. circular reasoning.c. polished rhetoric and skill at debate.d. determining what the majority thinks. A
The authors use the murder of Kitty Genovese to illustrate:a. bystander apathy.b. the paradox of hedonism.c. groupthink.d. ethical relativism. A
For philosophers, the most important issue is not where our moral principles came from, but:a. to what extent religion influences people’s moral beliefsb. how we acquired the beliefs we havec. the legal basis for acting morally d. whether those moral principles can be justified D
Choose the statement that gives the most accurate description of etiquette:a. etiquette refers to any special code of social behavior or courtesyb. the rules of etiquette are backed by statutory lawc. the rules of etiquette are a fundamental branch of moralityd. conformity with the rules of etiquette is sufficient for moral conduct A
Accepting a moral principle:a. is a purely intellectual act like accepting a scientific hypothesis. b. generally involves a desire to follow that principle for its own sake.c. is a religiously based act of faith.d. means you will never go against that principle. B
Proper logic states:a. a sound argument may have a false premise.b. a sound argument may have a false conclusion. c. all sound arguments are valid arguments.d. all valid arguments are sound arguments. C
Morality and self-interesta. are in basic, irreconcilable conflict.b. boil down to the same thing.c. can sometimes conflict.d. can never come into genuine conflict. C
If an argument is valid, thena. its conclusion must be true, if its premises are.b. the argument’s premises are true.c. the argument is sound.d. the argument’s conclusion must be true. A
Which statement is true concerning moral principles and self interests?a. Philosophers agree that morality is based on the commands of God.b. Statutes are laws applied in the English-speaking world before there were any common laws. c. Morality serves to restrain our purely self-interested desires so that we can all live together.d. “Groupthink” is a positive and necessary characteristic of all groups. C
The code or principles of conduct that a person acceptsAnswers: a. rarely guide his or her conduct in practice. b.can be distinguished from the person’s morality in a broader sense that includes his or her values, ideals, and aspirations.c. constitute the whole of his or her morality. B
Which philosopher referred to a bureaucracy as “rule by nobody”? Hannah Arendt
Which philosopher referred to a bureaucracy as “a circle from which no one can escape” ? Karl Marx

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