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Business Flashcards

Chapter 4 Document Makeover

The subject line of a business message should​ _____. clearly indicate the topic of the message
The opening of a business message using the direct approach must​ _____. state the main idea clearly
A knowledgeable business writer can help readers by​ _____. providing an organizational structure to the message
An​ efficient, well-organized business message​ _____. contains only relevant ideas
Even a​ well-organized business message needs a​ _____or it loses credibility. thorough proofreading
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Business 6-9

Management can achieve its goals by coordinating what four types of resources Material, informational, human, and financial
Coordinating people and the other resources of an organization to achieve the goals of the organization is the process of Management
Airplanes, crates, and trucks represent __________resources for Federal Express Material
Lawyers, accountants, and engineers are ________ resources of Microsoft Human
Revenues, proceeds from stock sales, and loans from bank are ________ resources for Sears Financial
As an upper level manager for Microsoft, Rodney is one of many people responsible for allocating organizational resources in order to achieve the key goals of a company. Specifically, Rodney is in charge of collecting and analyzing data on consumer preferences in personal computer design and technology ans is thus responsible for what general type of resource Informational
Planning, organizing, leading/motivating, and controlling make up the Four basic functions in the management process
Specific statements detailing what the organization intends to accomplish over a short period of time are called Objectives
A SWOT analysis is an identification and evaluation of a firm’s strengths, weaknesses, ___________, and threats Opportunities
Which of the following is external to a firm and exists independently of a company Opportunities
Which of the following would least likely to be considered a threat to an organization Human resources of an organization
Grouping resources and activities to efficiently and effectively accomplish a result is called Organizing
The process of evaluating and regulating ongoing activities to ensure that goals are achieved is known as Controlling
A large computer company provides well-being seminars free to its employees and provides them with a fitness facility to encourage physical and mental health. The company hopes this will create a satisfying work environment. Which managerial function does this involve Motivating
American Airlines has established a goal of increasing its profits by 12 percent next year. To ensure that the goal is reached, management monitors profits on a monthly basis. After three months, if profits have not increased by 3 percent, management will take corrective action to get the company on track. By doing so, management is carrying out its ___________ function Controlling
The CEO’s role at General Electric requires him to spend a great deal of time on planning. This indicates that he is a(n) __________manager Top
Chris Gomez is a plant manager for national Manufacturing Company. With regard to levels of management, Chris is a(n) _________manager Middle
A manager who coordinates the activities of operating employees is a(n) ________manager First-line
A manager who has the ability to see the big picture of an organization and to understand how the various parts of the organization can fit together has ________skills Conceptual
Specific skills needed to accomplish specialized activities such as drafting and welding are known as _________skills Technical
A manager with _______skills has the ability to deal effectively with people inside and outside the organization Interpersonal
A former CEO at International Telephone and Telegraph has a reputation for publicly humiliating subordinates who annoyed or disappointed them. This manager obviously needed to improve his ________ skills Interpersonal
Mondell’s lack of effective writing skills and his challenges in speaking to groups of people is causing stress in his job. He is becoming very aware that he needs to improve his _______skills Communication
Although Frank is not in top management, he is charismatic and well liked by others in his organization. Other employees often look to Frank to see how he reacts to new policies implemented by top management, and they follow his lead. Frank has _______ leadership in his organization Informal
Shyana has formal power in the Coffee Lovers, Ltd. organization while Sam has informal power. One of the primary differences between Shyana and Sam is that Shyana has ________ within the organizations while Sam does not Authority
Vice president, marketing — Regional sales manager — District manager — Sales supervisor represents a(n) Chain of command
Legal services and public affairs are ________ types of jobs, so they do not fit directly into the chain of command Advisory
The various tasks in IBM’s manufacturing plant are arranged so that one worker draws the wiring, another strengthens the wires, a third cuts them, a fourth inserts them, and a fifth seals them together. This is an example of job Specialization
A benefit of job specialization is that it Is easier to train new employees
When a worker has to learn only a specific, highly specialized task, that individual should be able to learn to do it efficiently. However, this efficiency could eventually become inhibited by job monotony and boredom. This situation could be alleviated through Job rotation
Grouping jobs into manageable units according to some reasonable scheme is known as Departmentalization
Location, product, function, and customer are common bases for a firm’s Departmentalization
A computer manufacturer is first divided into the following groups: Home Office/Personal Use, Small Business, Large Business, and Educational Institutions. Within each of these divisions, management is organized into finance, operations, marketing, and human resources. This company is organized first by ________, then by ________ Customer; Function
General Motors has separate divisions for Chevrolet, Pontiac, Oldsmobile, Buick, and Cadillac. This is an example of departmentalization by Product
A firm organized on the basis of retail customers and wholesale customers utilizes the concept of departmentalization by Customer
The assignment of part of a manager;s work authority to a worker is called Delegation
Janet is a runner for a large law firm. Her duties include purchasing supplies for the copy room. Janet was given permission by the office manager to sign credit-card receipts when making purchases. Janet has been given ________ to use the firm’s credit card Authority
The degree of centralization of an organization is based on the Delegation of authority
The more complex and uncertain a company’s environment, the more likely it is that the company will Decentralize the organization
A common characteristic of a centralized organization is Decision making by a few top-level managers
Rockwood International needs to make risky decisions on a daily basis. Therefore, its managers are likely to Centralize decision making
A biotechnology company is constantly faced with important decisions that are likely to have severe consequences on the future of the company. The top managers should Exercise centralized decision-making authority
The head of the marketing department of CBS Environmental, Inc., supervises twelve people in her department. This represents her Span of management
Zyquila is a manager in an organization where a great deal of interaction is required between herself and her workers and new problems arise frequently. Zyquila is likely to have A narrow span of control
Many organizations today are moving toward a(n)________ organization in an effort to get decisions made more quickly and action plans implemented more rapidly Flatter
A manager with few subordinates is said to have a Narrow span of control
A span of control may be wide when Few new problems are expected to arise
George Brown is a regional sales manager of Unisys, a large manufacturer of computer systems. As such, George is responsible for salespeople throughout the region, and he must interact with them frequently to solve problems. Which of the following descriptions is most characteristic of Unisys and its sales managers Narrow span of management control and tall organization height
A consulting manager at SAP America has a very side span of control. This is probably because the Manager and his or her subordinates are very competent
The number of layers, or levels, in a firm is referred to as the firm’s Organizational height
Generally speaking, a narrow span of management implies that the height of the organization will be ________; a wide span of management implies that the height of the organization will be ________ Tall; Flat
A small restaurant with wait staff that reports to staff managers who reports to a floor manager who report to the restaurant manager is a clear example of a __________ organizational structure Line
A basic difference between line managers and staff managers is that the line managers have ________ which staff managers rarely have Authority
When line managers in an organization encounter issues that a staff member with specialized expertise can assist with, the staff member they consult with has ________ authority Advisory
In an organization with a matrix structure, authority flows both Down and across
Airo Corporation has a traditional structure. It wants to change to a project structure that will allow more interaction among functional groups. Which structure would you suggest Matrix
Gio is in charge of making sure the raw steel brought into her company’s factory is turned into high-quality bearings for sale to customers. Gio is a(n) ________ manager Operations
John works for Texas Instruments. His task involve traveling to nearby colleges, interviewing students for hire after graduation, selecting certain ones to be invited for an office visit, and acquainting them with the facilities. He is in which phase of the HRM process Acquiring human resources
Activities that increase employees satisfaction such as surveys, employee communication programs, exit interviews, and fair treatment are all part of which phase of the human resources management process Maintaining human resources
Generally, human resources management is a responsibility shared by line managers and HRM specialists
Information on evolving technologies, industry staffing practices, projected economic trends, the particular company’s future business ventures, new products, and projected expansions or contractions of certain product lines can be helpful in predicting Human resource demans
When sales drop each summer at Vail Mountain Resorts, a high-quality destination ski area, the resort owners temporarily have too many employees to service the reduced number of tourists that enjoy the area during the warmer months. In this situation, the resorts most likely would Lay off workers
When people from a variety of different countries and educational and work experience backgrounds come together to work on a project, they often have varying perspectives on given issues. This benefits the company in the form of Better problem solving
Martin Enterprises wants to ensure that it thoroughly understands all of its jobs so that it can determine the qualifications each job demands. To do so, Martin would first Conduct job analysis
Gabriela wanted to know about the skills and experiences needed to qualify for a management position with JCPenny. Thus, he called and asked the personnel specialist to send him a job Description
When Foot Locker, a retailer of athletic shoes, wanted to study the various elements and requirements of the positions needed to staff a store in a large mall, it most likely began by Instituting a job analysis procedure
The process of attracting qualified job applicants is called Recruiting
Atlas Company pays workers $500 for recommendations that result in a hiring. In two years, the company has hired at least forty people through this program. Atlas Company is fulfilling its employment needs by using ________ as a recruiting source Employee referrals
All of the following are sources of external recruiting except Promotion of a current employee
You were asked to write a report to management indicating the primary advantage of external recruiting. You chose to focus on external recruiting’s abilities to ________ as its primary advantage Bring in new perspectives and varied background
One organization carefully observes candidates’ mannerisms, another uses gut feelings, and still another compares the candidates’ grade point averages when making a ________ decision Selection
Misumi wants to impress prospective employers with a summary of her background and qualifications for a management position. Her father, who is a businessperson, suggested sending a(n) Resume
The interview is part of Selection
Perhaps the most widely used selection technique is the Interview
People who can verify background information and provide personal evaluations of candidates References
What is cultural diversity, and why is it an important issue? It is differences among people in a workforce owing to race, ethnicity, religion, age, gender, and physical or learning abilities. It is important because it improves creativity and fresh view points for problem solving and decision making
To learn the exact nature of a job, we may use job analysis, a job description, and a job specification. For what purpose is each used? What information would a job description contain? A job specification? Job Analysis: Studying jobs to determine requirements. Job description: List of elements for a job–Duties, conditions, responsibilities. Job specification; List of qualifications to perform a job–Skills, abilities, education, experience
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Chapter 6 quiz

Which of the following terms refers to the process individuals or groups go through to​ select, purchase,​ use, and dispose of​ goods, services,​ ideas, or experiences to satisfy their needs and​ desires?A.InvolvementB.Consumer behavior.C.Search engine marketing​ (SEM)D.Perceived riskE.Search marketing Consumer behavior
If a consumer sees a significant difference between his or her current state of affairs and some desired or ideal​ state, which step of the consumer​ decision-making process is the consumer​ in?A.Evaluation of alternativesB.​Post-purchase evaluationC.Problem recognition.D.Information searchE.Product choice Problem recognition
In which step in the​ consumer-decision making process will a consumer narrow down choices deciding on​ feasibility, and comparing the pros and cons of each remaining​ option?A.​Post-purchase evaluationB.Information searchC.Evaluation of alternatives.D.Problem recognitionE.Product choice Evaluation of alternatives
If a consumer is experiencing cognitive dissonance regarding his or her​ purchase, the consumer is on what step of the consumer​ decision-making process?A.Evaluation of alternativesB.​Post-purchase evaluation.C.Product choiceD.Problem recognitionE.Information search Post-purchase evaluation
Which of the following terms refers to the process by which people​ select, organize, and interpret information from the outside​ world?A.MotivationB.PerceptionC.ExposureD.InterpretationE.Attention perception
A Rolex​ watch, a Lexus​ car, and even the latest Apple iPhone are all examples of a​ _____ symbol.A.culturalB.status.C.subculturalD.consumerE.style status
Which of the following refers to demand in which changes in price have little or no effect on the amount​ demanded?A.Inelastic demand B.Joint demandC.Organizational marketsD.Fluctuating demandE.Derived demand Inelastic demand
Which of the following describes a​ business-to-business, or​ organizational, market?A.Purchases frequently made on impulseB.Purchases for individual or household consumptionC.Purchases involving competitive​ bidding, price​ negotiations, and complex financial arrangementsD.Many individual or household customersE.Demand based on consumer needs and preferences that is generally​ price-elastic, steady over​ time, and independent of demand for other products Purchases involving competitive​ bidding, price​ negotiations, and complex financial arrangements
Which of the following refers to a group that purchases finished goods for the purpose of selling those finished goods for a​ profit, renting, or leasing to consumers and other​ businesses?A.Government marketsB.ResellersC.​Not-for-profit marketsD.Organizational marketsE.Producers Resellers
correct, Chapter Quiz 6.5.4 Which of the following terms refers to creating a written description of the​ quality, size,​ weight, color,​ features, quantity,​ training, warranty, service​ terms, and delivery requirements for the​ purchase?A.Customer reference programB.Multiple sourcingC.Product specificationsD.Single sourcingE.Reciprocity Product specifications
Which of the following refers to the process individuals experience when working to satisfy their needs and​ desires?A.Consumer behaviorB.Perceived riskC.Problem recognitionD.Habitual decision makingE.Extended problem solvin Consumer behavior
What type of purchase decision is often based on a response to cues in the environment rather than the perceived consequences of the​ purchase?A.Determinant attributeB.​Low-involvementC.Problem recognitionD.​High-involvementE.Consideration set ​Low-involvement
___ is the process individuals or groups go through to​ select, purchase,​ use, and dispose of​ goods, services,​ ideas, or experiences to satisfy their needs and desires.A.InvolvementB.Consumer behaviorC.Perceived riskD.Search marketingE.Search engine marketing​ (SEM) Consumer behavior
____ is the last step in the consumer​ decision-making process in which the consumer evaluates the quality of his or her choice.A.Information searchB.Product choiceC.​Post-purchase evaluationD.Problem recognitionE.Evaluation of alternatives ​Post-purchase evaluation
In​ the________ step of the consumer​ decision-making process, a consumer focuses on two components​ first, and a consumer armed with information identifies a small number of products in which he or she is interested. Then using a set of evaluation​ criteria, the consumer will decide among the options.A.evaluation of alternativesB.problem recognitionC.information searchD.product choiceE.​post-purchase evaluation evaluation of alternatives
Which of the following is NOT one of the steps in the​ decision-making process?A.Product choiceB.Problem recognitionC.Perceived riskD.Evaluation of alternativesE.Information search Perceived risk
Which of the following is the theory that learning occurs based on past experiences and connections​ formed?A.Behavior learningB.Hierarchy of needsC.Observational learningD.PsychographicsE.​Top-of-mind awareness Behavior learning
How can marketers increase the chances that consumers will have a connection​ to, and respond​ to, an​ ad?A.Incorporate gamificationB.Eliminate demographic cuesC.Offer interpretationD.Conduct observational learningE.Base the ad on personal needs and goals Base the ad on personal needs and goals
_____ is the process by which people​ select, organize, and interpret information from the outside world.A.ExposureB.AttentionC.PerceptionD.MotivationE.Interpretation Perception
When marketers give celebrities free products in hopes the celebrity will like and show off the​ product, marketers are using​ ________, which is the process by which people​ select, organize, and interpret information from the outside world.A.motivationB.perceptionC.exposureD.attentionE.interpretation exposure
_____ is a type of learning that occurs when a stimulus eliciting a response is paired with another stimulus that initially does not elicit a response on its own but will cause a similar response over time because of its association with the first stimulus.A.Classical conditioningB.Operant conditioningC.Observational learning theoryD.Behavioral learning theoryE.Cognitive learning theory Classical conditioning
Rich media can best be described as​ ________.A.an internal state that drives us to satisfy needsB.the process of assigning meaning to a stimulus based on prior associations we have with it and assumptions we make about itC.a digital advertising term for an ad that includes advanced features like video and audio that encourage viewers to interact and engage with the contentD.companies that collect information on consumers and use it to create detailed profiles of individualsE.a strategy in which marketers apply game design techniques to​ non-gaming contexts like shopping a digital advertising term for an ad that includes advanced features like video and audio that encourage viewers to interact and engage with the content
Which situational influence determines whether a shopper will react positively or negatively to a store or shopping​ experience?A.ValuesB.Physical environmentC.CultureD.Social classE.Time Physical environment
Who are the people who easily influence​ other’s attitudes or behaviors based on perceived expertise or knowledge about a​ product?A.Mass class leadersB.Commercial endorsersC.Opinion leadersD.Reference groupsE.Producers Opinion leaders
____ is a marketing technique that links distinct experiences such as a unique fragrance with a product or service.A.Sensory marketingB.CultureC.MicrocultureD.Time povertyE.Subculture Sensory marketing
___ refers to the hundreds of millions of global consumers who now enjoy a level of purchasing power​ that’s sufficient to let them afford​ high-quality products offered by​ well-known multinational companies.A.Opinion leaderB.​Mass-classC.Social classD.Reference groupE.Status symbol mass-class
Many consumers are becoming very aware of the social and environmental consequences of their purchaseslong dashand making their decisions accordingly.​ ________ refers to the social movement directed toward protecting consumers from harmful business practices.A.SubcultureB.MicrocultureC.ConsumerismD.CultureE.Sensory marketing Consumerism
An opinion leader can best be described as​ ________.A.the overall rank of people in a societyB.the visible markers that provide a way for people to flaunt their membership in higher social classes​ (or at least to make others believe they are​ members)C.the hundreds of millions of global consumers who now enjoy a level of purchasing power​ that’s sufficient to let them afford​ high-quality products offered by​ well-known multinational companiesD.a person who influences​ others’ attitudes or behaviors because they believe that he or she possesses expertise about the productE.a set of people that a consumer wants to please or imitate a person who influences​ others’ attitudes or behaviors because they believe that he or she possesses expertise about the product
Goods that are produced and sold to help support the operations of other businesses are part of the​ _____.A.​business-to-business marketB.​single-sourcing marketC.customer reference programD.government marketE.buy class framework business-to-business market
When the demand for goods in a business is based on consumer demand for what is​ produced, the organization is operating based on​ _____.A.B2B demandB.derived demandC.geographic concentrationD.organizational marketsE.​limited-term relationships derived demand
In B2B​ markets, ________ demand means that it usually​ doesn’t matter if the price of a B2B product goes up or down–business customers still buy the same quantity.A.jointB.inelasticC.fluctuatingD.derivedE.organizational markets inelastic
Which of the following describes an organizational​ market?A.Purchases for individual or household consumptionB.Purchases frequently made on impulseC.Demand based on consumer needs and​ preferences, which is generally​ price-elastic, steady over​ time, and independent of demand for other productsD.Many individual or household customersE.Purchases made by someone other than the user of the product Purchases made by someone other than the user of the product
__ make up the largest single business market in the United States.A.ProducersB.ResellersC.Government marketsD.Organizational marketsE.​Not-for-profit markets Government markets
Which of the following is NOT considered typical of organizational​ markets?A.Purchasers often engage in lengthy decision processesB.Purchases made according to precise technical specifications based on product expertiseC.Purchases frequently involve high risk and high costD.Interdependencies between buyers and​ sellers; long-term relationshipsE.The ultimate user often makes the purchase The ultimate user often makes the purchase
Which buyclass framework includes those items a business purchases on a regular​ basis, such as office​ supplies?A.Procurement buyB.Customer reference programC.Modified rebuyD.Straight rebuyE.Product specification buy Straight rebuy
If a firm needs specialized product or frequent deliveries of​ products, what type of supplier relationship should be​ pursued?A.OffshoringB.ReciprocityC.Single sourcingD.Modified rebuyingE.Multiple sourcing Single sourcing
A​ ________ refers to the routine purchase of items that a B2B customer regularly needs. The buyer has purchased the same items many times before and routinely reorders them when supplies are​ low, often from the same suppliers. Reordering the items takes little timeA.modified rebuyB.straight rebuyC.buyclassD.buying centerE.​new-task buy straight rebuy
The​ ________ is the member of the buying center who makes the final choice. This person usually has the greatest power within the buying​ center; she often has power within the organization to authorize spending the​ company’s money.A.initiatorB.influencerC.gatekeeperD.deciderE.user decider
Target’s computer system was breached when hackers installed​ ________ software designed specifically to damage or disrupt computer systems.A.firewallB.reverse marketingC.malwareD.encryptionE.outsourcing malware
According to a recent study cited in the​ textbook, which of the following social media sites was one of the top three most likely to be used by B2B​ marketers?A.​Yahoo!B.LinkedInC.PinterestD.InstagramE.Google LinkedIn
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Problem set 3 (Business statistics)

“In sample we deal with …, in populations with…” 1.) Statistics2.) parameters
Which of the following provides a measure of central location for the data?a.) Standard deviation b.) Meanc.) Varianced.) Range Mean
A numerical value used as a summery measure for a sample, such as sample mean, is known as Sample Statistics
Since the population size is always larger than the sample size, then the sample statistic can be smaller, larger, or equal to the population parameter
μ is an example of population parameter
The median of a sample will always equal the 50th percentile
The median is a measure of central location
The 75th percentile is referred as the Third quartile
The pth quertial is a value such that at least p percent of the observation are less than equal to this value
The difference between the largest and the smallest data values is the range
The first quartile Is the same as the 25th percentile
Which of the following is not a measure of central location?a.)Mean b.) Medianc.) Varianced.) Mode Variance
If a data set has an even number of observation, the median is the average value of the two middle item when all item are arranged in ascending order
Which of the following is a measure of dispersiona.) Percentiles b.) Quartilesc.) Interquartile range d.) all of the above interquartile range
the most frequent occurring value of a data set is called the mode
The interquartile range is the difference between the third quartile and the first quartile
If index i (which is used to determine the location of the pth percentile) is not an integer, its value should be rounded up
When the data are skewed to the right, the measure of skewness will be positive
when data are positively skewed , the mean will usually be greater than the median
Which of the following is not a measure of dispersiona.) the rangeb.) the 50th percentialc.) the standard deviationd.) the interquartile range the 50th percentile
The range is used as a measure of variability to overcome what difficulty of the range? the range influenced too much by extreme values
If the variance of a data set is correctly computed with the formula using n-1 in the denominator the data set is a sample
In computing descriptive statistics from grouped data ( like frequency histogram) data values are treated as if they occur at the midpoint of a class
The measure of dispersion that is influenced most by extreme values is the range
When should measure of location and dispersion be computed from grouped data rather than from individual data values? only when individuals data values are unavaliable
The descriptive measure of dispersion that is based on the concept of a deviation about the mean is the standard deviation
The measure of location which is the most likely to be influenced by extreme values in the data set is the mean
The most important statistical descriptive measure of the location of data set is the mean
The numerical value of the standard deviation can never be negative
The sample variance could be smaller, equal to, or larger than the true value of the population variance
The variance can never be negative
the sum of deviations of the individual data elements from their mean is always equal to zero
Standard deviation of the population σ
mean of the population μ
variance of the population σ^2
size of the population N
mean of the sample -X
size of sample N
a numerical measure of linear associate between two variables correlation coefficient of covariance
positive values of covariance indicates positive relation between the independent and the dependent variables
the coefficient of correlation ranges between -1 and +1
the coefficient of correlation cannot be larger than 1
When the smallest and largest percentage of item are removed from data set and the mean is computed, the mean of the remaining data is the trimmed mean
during a cold winter, the temperature stayed below zero for ten days (ranging from -20 to -5). the variance of temp of the 10 days period must be at least 0
which of the following is not a measure of dispersiona.) modeb.) Standard deviation c.) ranged.) interquartile range mode
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Business management final chapter 3

Which of the following includes paternity leaves? Family and Medical Leave Act
To help managers and employees make ethical decisions and behave in ways that benefit their stakeholders, they can use four ethical rules or principles to analyze the effects of their business decisions on stakeholders, the: ________________ rules. utilitarian, moral rights, justice, and practical
If two male managers exchange a lewd sexual joke in the presence of a female manager, these male managers have exhibited: a hostile work environment
A manager who is effectively managing diversity in the disseminator role would: communicate to employees about diversity policies.
Which of the following results due to differences in personalities, values, and attitudes? individual ethics
Important issues concerning how and when payments are made or product quality and safety specifications are governed by the contracts a company signs with its: suppliers and distributors
Kenneth, the human resources manager at Dimensions Co., commits 20 percent of this year’s budget to develop a new program for bringing minority interns into the company. Which of the following roles is Kenneth performing? entrepreneur
The utilitarian rule states that an ethical decision: produces the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
Why is it so important that managers, and people in general, should act ethically and temper their pursuit of self-interest by considering the effects of their actions on others? Because giving excessive importance to oneself with no consideration of societal interests leads to disaster for each individual and for the whole society because scarce resources are destroyed.
When making an ethical decision, asking the questions “Would my family members and friends approve of this decision, and am I willing to see the decision communicated to all people and groups affected?” are part of the _________________ rule. practical
The people and groups that supply a company with its productive resources, and so, have a claim on and a stake in the company, are known as ______________. stakeholders
A top manager giving a speech to employees about the importance of diversity is acting as a(n): figurehead
The adage “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you” is a(n) ________________ principle. moral rights
Which of the following is a part of developing and clearly communicating a sexual harassment policy endorsed by top management? Develop a procedure for employees to use to report instances of harassment
Employees who are similar in their level of skill, performance, or responsibility should receive similar pay; allocation of outcomes should not be based on differences such as gender, race, or religion. This is an example of which rule of ethical decision making? Justice rule
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IS Chapter 15

What describes how products in a network increase in value to users as the number of users increase? RSS Network effect Mcommerce Mashup editor Network effect
What is a system that consists of nonproprietary hardware and software based on publicly known standards that allows third parties to create add-on products to plug into or interoperate with the system? Open system Reputation system Management system Knowledge system Open system
What is a component of Web 3.0 that describes things in a way that computers can understand? Sustaining web Social web Social tagging Semantic web Semantic web
Which of the below is not an example of a social bookmarking website? StumbleUpon All of these Facebook Del.icio.us Facebook
What are the two categories that include intellectual and knowledge-based assets? Open knowledge and closed knowledge Efficient knowledge and tacit knowledgeExplicit knowledge and tacit knowledge Intelligent knowledge and explicit knowledge Explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge
What is the ability to purchase goods and services through a wireless Internet-enabled device? EcommerceMeconomics Ebusiness model Mobile business Mobile business
What statement below describes Web 3.0’s feature that ensures the “integration of legacy devices”? The ability for software to be distributed and accessed from anywhere. The design of websites and other software so they can be easily integrated and work together. The design of software to be easily integrated and work together. The ability to use current devices such as iPhones and laptops as credit cards or tickets. The ability to use current devices such as iPhones and laptops as credit cards or tickets.
What is the type of knowledge that is contained in people’s heads? Explicit knowledge Virtual knowledge Tacit knowledge Pure knowledge Tacit knowledge
What is the difference between asynchronous and synchronous communication? Asynchronous communication includes instant messaging. Synchronous communication includes email. Asynchronous is communication that does not occur at the same time. Synchronous communication occurs at the same time. Asynchronous is real-time communication. Synchronous is one-way technology. Asynchronous communication is fast and instant. Synchronous communication is collected at a single point in time. Asynchronous is communication that does not occur at the same time. Synchronous communication occurs at the same time.
How would a company like Flickr use social tagging on its website? By selecting the keywords to associate with each image a customer uploads. By allowing users to upload images and tag the images with their own keywords. By building a tagging game for customers to participate in. By applying keywords that do not match user content. By allowing users to upload images and tag the images with their own keywords.
How would you categorize mobile entertainment, mobile sales, mobile ticketing, and mobile banking? McommerceAll of these Mbusiness Mobile business All of these
What are the four most common Business 2.0 characteristics? Content sharing, user-contributed content, competition elimination, and web browser organization.Content sharing through open source, specialist-contributed content only, collaboration inside the community, and specialized collaboration.Content sharing through open source, user-contributed content, collaboration inside the organization, and collaboration outside the organization. Consumer sharing through open systems, company-contributed content, collaboration inside the organization, and collaboration throughout the organization. Content sharing through open source, user-contributed content, collaboration inside the organization, and collaboration outside the organization.
What are the two basic functions that social networking sites provide? The ability to create and maintain a profile that is your online identity and create connections between other people within the network. The ability to create and publish your own software. The ability to capture and create URLs and RSSs. The ability to create URLs and edit RSS software. The ability to create and maintain a profile that is your online identity and create connections between other people within the network.
Using the collective power of a community to identify and classify content significantly _________ content categorization costs. balances lowers eliminates raises lowers
What does API stand for? Application Provider for the Internet Asynchronous Programming InformationApplication Programming Interface Asynchronous Protocol Interaction Application Programming Interface
eBay buyers voluntarily comment to other users and sellers on the quality of service, promptness of shipping, and their general satisfaction with the product. This is one of the most popular examples of user-generated content and is called a(n) ____________. knowledge system user-generated sales cycle explicit system reputation system reputation system
One of the most famous examples of wiki vandalism occurred when a false biography entry stated which of the following? Michael Jackson and Madonna were siblings.John Seigenthaler Sr. was assistant to Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy in the early 1960s and was involved in Kennedy’s assassination as well as JFK’s. Madonna and Britney Spears are sisters. JFK and Robert Kennedy were the same person. John Seigenthaler Sr. was assistant to Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy in the early 1960s and was involved in Kennedy’s assassination as well as JFK’s.
Ebusiness was characterized by a few companies or users posting content for the masses. What characterizes Business 2.0? A select few posting specific content for the masses. The masses posting content for a select few. The masses posting content for the masses. A select few posting content for high-level executives only. The masses posting content for the masses.
What is an SNA? Social needs analysis Strong network applicationSocial networking analysis Steady network area Social networking analysis
What is the most common form of collective intelligence found inside the organization? Knowledge management Tagging Crowdsourcing Tacit management Knowledge management
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Chapter 9 Business CAOT 32

Cassandra will be writing a bad-news letter to a customer and wants to follow the four-part indirect plan. In what order should she organize her letter? Buffer, reasons, bad news, closing
Select the best buffer to open a letter that refuses a request from a local nonprofit organization for a charitable donation. The services you provide for homeless families in our community are necessary and important.
Select the best subject line for a memo delivering bad news to employees. Change in Parking Benefit
The most important part of a bad-news letter is the section that explains the reasons for the bad news.
Which of the following is the best advice when presenting the reasons for the bad news? Cite reader or other benefits if plausible.
Gerald discovered that one of his employees has filed a fraudulent expense claim. What is the best advice for Gerald to deliver the bad news to this employee tactfully, professionally, and safely? Gerald should prepare and rehearse what he will say.
What statement about delivering bad news within an organization is most accurate? A tactful tone is useful when communicating bad news within organizations.
Capital Management is in a budget crunch and plans to make major layoffs next month. What is the best advice for communicating this crisis to employees? Deliver the bad news to employees personally if possible.
Jeannie must deliver bad news to her staff in person, and she knows they’ll be upset. What should Jeannie do first to prepare for the meeting? Gather all relevant information.
A company must deliver bad news to hundreds of employees and wants to use digital media to do so. Which communication tool is acceptable? Any of these digital communication tools is acceptable for delivering bad news to employees.
What is the best advice for closing a bad-news letter? Close with something forward looking that assumes future business.
Select the most accurate statement. An employee’s words, decisions, and opinions are assumed to represent those of the organization.
Roger’s company will be raising the prices of its basic services, and Roger must write to customers to inform them of these increases. What is the most important thing he should do when writing this message? Explain the reasons and hook the increase to benefits.
The bad feelings associated with disappointing news can generally be reduced if the receiver All of these choices (believes that the matter was treated seriously and fairly, feels the news was revealed sensitively, knows the reasons for the rejection)
Deborah must deny a request made by one of her employees. The most effective statement in a bad-news message denying this request would be Although your extra night cannot be reimbursed, we will process the remainder of your expense claim immediately.
What is the most accurate statement about negative workplace messages? Some businesses have to respond to complaints voiced on social network sites such as Facebook and Twitter.
Wesley has included this opening statement in a bad-news message to a client: We both realize that the current economic downturn has resulted in lower stock prices. What kind of buffer is this? Agreement
When should the direct pattern be used to communicate negative news? When firmness is necessary
Which of the following statements is most accurate? In writing to a customer about a problem with an order, generally, you should use the direct patternif the message has some good-news elements.
Select the best sentence to include in the closing paragraph of a badnews letter that turns down a job applicant. We wish you the best in your job search
The major differences between the direct and indirect strategies are whether you start witha buffer and how early you explain the reasons for the negative news.
Select the best subject line for a memo delivering bad news to employees. Change in Parking Benefit
Timothy is writing a badnews message to his supervisor and is now in Phase 3 of thewriting process. What should he do during this phase? Timothy should do all of these (check that his wording concise, make sure that his tone is friendlyand respectful, and ensure that he has delivered the bad news clearly but professionally). Heshould also check his grammar and spelling for correctness.
Peter must deny an employee’s request to work from home two days a week. What is thebest way to begin this bad news message? You are an extremely valued member of our team, and we all benefit from being able to work withyou face-to-face on a daily basis.
In a recommendation letter, Nathan falsely accuses former employee Jacqueline of treating her supervisor disrespectfully. This action is considered to be libel.
Goldstar Investments has just learned that it is being sued for securities fraud. What shouldtop management at Goldstar do? Hold a press conference to announce the bad news before the media does.
Most job refusal letters use the indirect strategy
Which of the following is not one of the goals in communicating negative news? To hide the real reason for the negative news
The most effective statement in a badnews letter declining an invitation to speak to aprofessional organization would be Although I’m already booked the night of your dinner, I would be happy to speak to yourorganization sometime next year.
You are opening a new restaurant and realize that customers might post reviews online.What should you do? You should do all of these: recognize social networks as an important communication channel, tryto monitor comments, and use social media sites to interact with customers.
Which is the most effective statement in a letter to a customer denying credit? To learn more about your credit record, log onto http://www.ftc.gov/freereports to obtainyour free credit reports.
What is the best advice for delivering the bad news? Suggest a compromise or alternative.
Which of the following is an appropriate statement when saying no to job applicants? We appreciate your interest in our company and wish you every success in your jobsearch.
When writing a letter to a customer denying credit, you have four goals. Which of thefollowing is not one of these goals? Promising the customer that credit will be granted in the future
You’re not sure how your reader will react to the bad news you will be delivering. Whatshould you do? Organize the bad-news message using the indirect strategy.
The most effective statement in a letter to a local charitable organization refusing its requestfor a donation would be Even though our budget won’t allow a contribution this year, we hope to be able to contributenext year
What is the best advice for writing a letter that turns down a customer’s claim? Consider offering resale information to build the customer’s confidence in your products ororganization.
Following up on bad-news in writing is important to Following up on bad news in writing is important for all these purposes.
Which of the following sentences uses the passive voice to present the bad news? Although the social media specialist position has been filled, we wish you well in your jobsearch.
Katie makes an abusive statement about David. This language will be actionable if all of these statements are true (if her statements are damaging to David’s reputation, she sends the messages by e-mail to two other employees by the department.
Morgan has decided that she must apologize to a customer in her buffer. Which of these following is the best example of an effective apology? You have every right to be concerned, and we sincerely apologize for the delay in filling your order. To prevent this from occurring again, we have upgraded our software and retrained our order takers.
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Management and Leadership – Zappos

Zappos was created and made possible by a changing business-environmental factor. This factor ispolitical.legal.technology.competition.socio cultural. technology
The style of leadership at Zappos is most closely aligned withautocratic leadership.free-rein leadership.equity financing.participative leadership.country club management. free-rein leadership.
Companies often use ______________ to create long-term strategic plans for the organization.a strategic matrixan organizational charta planning zonea SWOT analysiscontingency plans
Companies often use ______________ to create long-term strategic plans for the organization.a strategic matrixan organizational charta planning zonea SWOT analysiscontingency plans a SWOT analysis
Zappos trains, educates, and gives its employees the knowledge to make decisions in the workplace. This philosophy is referred to asselling.educating.managing.direct investment.enabling. enabling
The customer who purchases the product from Zappos would be calleda Zappo.an external customer.an owner.an internal customer.a happy customer. an external customer.
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21.3 The business cicle

The high point of a economic activity is called A peak
Which of the following desribes the effect of the business cycle on the inflation rate? The unemployement rate increases and the inflation rate falls during recessions
The low point of economic activity is called a trough
The period between the high point of economic activity and the following low point is called a recession
The period between the low point of economic activity and the following high point is called an expansion
Why might the unemployment rate continue to rise during the early stae of a recovery? Because (a) and (c) are true:a) Employement may grow slowly relative to the growth of the labor forceb) Some firms continue to operte well below capacity even after a recession has ended
Which of the following choices is correct? (about recessions and expansions) Recessions were more severe and lasted longer in the first half of the 20th century than in the second half
Many economists agteee the difference (recessions in the first vs. second half of 20th cnt.) is due to all of the following reasons except: Sine the 1950s, people have become more rational and control their spending countercyclically.
Consider the following goods, which are likely to fluctuate more / less than fluctuation of real GDP More than (Durabl goods)- Ford F150 trucks- Kenmore refrigator – Caterpillar industrial traktorsLess than (non-durable goods)- McDonalds BigMac- Huggies Diapers
The national Bureau of Econ (NBER), a private group, is responsible for declaring when recession begin and end. The BEA, part of the Gov., might not want to take on this responsibility, Which of the following is th most appropriate reason for th BEA’s refusal? Because it is part of the Government, the BEA could be pulled into politics with the dating of recessions.
When firm expand during recession, they cannot be certain when recovery will occur nd know they could expereience prolonged losses
A more cautios approach (to expansion during a recession) might be advisable where: Sales are particular cyclical
Real GP was 15.5 Trillion. This value is a large number. Therefore economic growth must have been high during 2012. Do you agree with this statement? No, I do not agree.
Changes in the demand for housing affect Whirlpool’s sale because Washing mashines and dryers are installed or included in virtually every home purchased.
Imagine you own a business and you layed off 20% of workforce during a recession. Once economic activity picks up and your sales begin to increase, why might you not immidiately start re-hiring? Before rehiring you would like to make sure that this economic expansion lasts.
What is the great moderation? The absence of severe recessions sine the mid 1980’s
By 2011, why might some people have considered the great moderation to habe been a delusion? The recession that began in December 2007 was the longest and most severe since the great recession of the 1930’s
What is the general relationship between the business cycle, unemployment and inflation? During an expansion, unemployment falls and inflation increases
Use the graph to help determine whichone of the following statements regarding fluctuations in GDP is true: In the first half of the 20th centurity, real GDP had much more severe swings than in the second half.
From a trough to a pea, the economy goes through the expansion phase of the business cycle
Typically, when will the NBER announces that the economy is a rcession? A year or more after the recession has begun
As the economy nears the end of an expansion, which of the following typically occurs?
As the economy nears the end of an expansion, which of the following typically occurs? A) All of the above- Interests rise- Wages rising faster than prices- Profits are falling
Purchases of which types of goods are business cylcles most likely to affect? Durable goods
Recessions cause the inflation rate to…and th unemployement rate to… Decrease / Increase
Which of the following is not a reason that the economiy is considerd to have been more stable in the 1950 to 2007 period than in other periods? Continoually falling oil prices
During the last half of the 20th century the US economy experienced long expansions, interrupted by relatively short recessions
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Business Exam 2-ch 7

Organizational structure is defined as the arrangement or relationship of positions within an organization
When managers assign work activities to groups and individuals and coordinate the diverse activities required to attain organizational objectives, they contribute to the development of organizational structure
A department store’s organizational structure defines the relationships between all the individuals working together to achieve its objectives.
The more people an organization has and the greater its specialization, the greater is its need for sales
An organization’s shared values, beliefs, traditions, philosophies, rules, and tole models for behavior represent its organizational culture
The benefits of division of labor were described in the wealth of nations by adam smith
many experts believe people can perform most efficiently if they master just one task rather than all tasks. A famous book that supports this point was published in 1776 and is titled Wealth of nations
Small businesses commonly employ functional departmentalization
All of the following are approaches to departmentalization except line
A company that has departments for marketing, finance, personnel, and production is organized by function
___ departmentalization arranges jobs around the needs of various types of customers. Customer
Which of the following concepts frees a manager to attend to matters that he or she is especially qualified to deal with? Delegation of authority
if Edgar’s manager gives him an assignment without providing Edgar with the resources to complete the assignment, Edgar’s manager is exhibiting improper delegation of authority
John is a copywriter in his company’s marketing department. The copy for an ad placed in Time magazine for his company spelled the company’s name wrong. Who is ultimately responsible for the mistake? The marketing vice president
An organization operating in a complex and unpredictable environment is likely to be ____ in order to improve responsiveness and enhance creativity. decentralized
When superiors and subordinates are not in close proximity and the manager has many responsibilities in addition to supervision, the appropriate span of management would be narrow
which of the following is not a basis for organizing using a multidivisional structure? Project
An advantage of line structure in organizations is a clear chain of command
which of the following organizational forms is also called a project management structure? Matrix structure
which of the following organizational forms allows managers to take responsibility for the areas in which they specialize? Line and staff structure
multidivisional structures organize departments into larger divisions, often based on geography, product, and/or customer
which of the following is formed to solve specific quality, service or productivity problems? Quality-assurance team
which of the following is a temporary group of employees, usually chosen for their expertise, responsible for bringing out a specific change? Task force
work groups have individual accountability
teams have a strong, clearly focused leader
a permanent, formal group that performs a specific task is a committee
a temporary group of employees responsible for bringing about a particular change is a task force
project teams run their operation and have control of a specific work project.
diagonal communication occurs when individuals from different units and departments within an organization communicate
which of the following is an informal communication channel? the grapevine